Xt purchase $31. 50 1. Introduction 2. Methods 3. Results 4. Discussion 5. Conclusions conflicts of interest references abstract context and objectives interest in laparoscopic assisted radical cystectomy (lrc) and robotic assisted radical cystectomy (rrc) is increasing at select centers worldwide. In this update we present the recent worldwide experience and critically evaluate the role of minimally invasive radical surgery for patients with bladder cancer. Evidence acquisition english-language literature between 1992 and 2007 was reviewed using the national library of medicine database and the following key words: laparoscopic, laparoscopic-assisted, robotic, robotic-assisted, and radical cystectomy. Over 102 papers were identified, 48 of which were selected for this review on the basis of their contribution to advancing the field with regard to three criteria: (1) evolution of concepts, (2) development and refinement of techniques, and (3) intermediate- and long-term clinical outcomes. These were evaluated with respect to current techniques and perioperative, functional, and oncological outcomes. Our initial experience is also reported. Evidence synthesis minimally invasive technique. purchase viagra without prescription 車保険見積もり
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